The Republic of Plato 9.5分
读书笔记 第四卷的整理笔记
陈皮皮

The republic 理想国 Book 4 一,关于护卫者自身与城邦的幸福 Adeimantus说 没有使护卫者happy 419a “they to whom the city in truth belongs but who enjoy nothing good from the city as do others” 城市真正属于他们,他们却得不到利益。 Socrates说他们也是happiest, 1,着眼于寻求城邦整体的幸福。 420b “not looking to the exceptional happiness of any o as ne group among us but, as far as possible, that of the city a whole.” 2,要各处其职,分配属于他自己的那种快乐。 油饰雕像时眼睛颜色的比喻 420d 要“assigning what’s suitable to each of them,make the whole fair” 对照给护卫者一种happiness”that will turn them into everything except guardians” *对照之前苏格拉底所说的“正义是每个人根据自己的天性去获得其应有的快乐和事情”,从而达到城邦整体的幸福。 3,护卫者堕落,整个城邦也堕落了。 421a “utterly destroy an entire city, just as they alone are master of the occasion to govern it well and to make it happy” 4,设置护卫者,是为了“this happiness for the city as a whole” 最后达到421c”with the whole city growing thus and being fairly founded, we must let nature assign to each of the groups its share of happiness。“ *以护卫者为上层,以自身带头往下传播这中遵循本分所应做和所得的观点。 跟孔子所说的“不在其位,不谋其职”。同时不在其位,也不得其乐吗? 二,Socrates说起相关的---Wealth and poverty 使人不再专注于技艺。 1,所以要防止过富/过穷 421e “from both poverty and wealth the products of the arts are worse and the men themselves are worse” 三,关于战争,Adeimantus说 没有钱怎么be able to make war? Socrates说 1,对付一个和对付两个,对付两个要更简单 因为首先,be as a champions in war fighting with the rich men 再者,one finest possible training boxer 能够很容易对抗 two rich ,fat nonboxers. 因为,先withdraw a bit,再单独对付whichever come up first,to strike him。而且同理就能制服很多人。 而the rich在boxing比在war上有更多的知识和经验。(就是在war上更没经验?) 得出结论,我们的人能轻易以一打几。 2,寻求联盟。 去别的城邦,一起参加战斗不要财宝(nor is it lawful for us), 狗和羊的比喻 3,重新界定别的not fit to call”city”的城邦,与我们建造的城邦相比 Get bigger names—— 423a ”Two....warring with each other, one of the poor, the other of the rich.” 怎么应对呢?”approach them as many,offering the ones the money and the power or the very persons of the others, you’ll always have the use of many allies and few enemies.” 将另一个人的东西分给其他人,这样就有很多朋友很少敌人。 *正如同共产主义里面的分地行动,争取农村的力量? 最后,我们的城邦能成为truly biggest,不是尺寸而言。 一,讲到Fairest boundary最佳的疆域限制: 423c “up to that point in its growth at which it’s willing to be one, let it grow, and not beyond.” 护卫者使城邦疆域在sufficient and one. *迪尔凯姆所说的有机团结与机械团结之分,分工使人们之间联系更紧密,缔结成一种有机团结。 二,对护卫者的要求,对护卫者的后代继任的筛选 423d “each of the other citizens too must be brought to that which naturally suits him——one man, one job.这样“each man...will not become many but one; and thus, you see, the whole city will naturally grow to be one and not many”从单个人到城邦,都是一个整体。 是the one great thing唯一重大的事 即education and rearing 因为1,经过教育变成sensible men,更能理解have all things in common这样的观点。 2,produce good nature and sound natures.而且他们的后代会更好 所以,得出原则:424b”there must be no innovation in gymnastic and music contrary to thr established order” 因为424c ”never are the ways of music moved without the greatest political laws being moved”音乐的改变带来政治礼法的改变 且无声无息的,直到最后颠覆。 讲到礼法 儿童more lawful play 还有 receiver lawfulness from music 这些seemingly small conventions,不一一制定,因为”like always call forth like” *而现代人总是不断set down and correct such reles,被苏格拉底认为是worthless and licentiousness。以病魔缠身却不愿改变堕落的生活方式,只不断求医的人。 接下来,讲到the greatest, fairest, and first of the laws——Foundings of temples, sacrifices, and whatever else belongs to the care of gods, demons, and heroes.与神相关的祭祀 神无疑是是——the ancestral interpreter of such things for all human *阿里斯托芬《云》里说苏格拉底逼视太阳的不敬神? 城邦已被建立起来,是perfectly good, 且是wise, courageous, moderate and just. 寻找的方法是,找到其他三项,剩下的就是。 首先找的是 一,wisdom. By knowledge,that men counsel well. 出于何种知识?The guardian’s skill.护卫者的知识 428d “about how the city as a whole would best deal with itself and the other cities” 护卫者最少“be the fewest of all in number” 得出结论:由于这居于统治地位的最小团体,使这整个城邦,整体上成为智慧的。他们的knowledge才被称为wisdom. 二,courage 勇敢指的是 1,,从430b“defends it and takes the field on its behalf”这部分着眼去看 2,城邦的某一部分中保持着“the opinion about which things are terrible”的力量, 也就是“courage is a certain kind of preserving”,对于礼法和教育下关于什么是terrible的观念的保持和维护。 比喻:使护卫者像染布一样,经过教育,说服后,接受礼法。 最后接受,但是是一种political courage. 三,moderation 1,从个人而言 430e 是”a certain kind of order and mastery of certain kinds of pleasure and desires” 就是”stronger than himself”自胜的: 即灵魂中存在更好的一部分和更坏的一部分,用于431a“when that which is better by nature is master over that which is worse”,好的部分统治坏的部分,放纵则反之。 2,从城邦而言 同理,the common有着many, diverse desires, pleasures and pains 而few born with best natures and best educated有着simple and moderate desires, pleasures and pains.由calculation和intelligence所引导 后者decent few的desire应主宰前者common many的desire 因此,克制的城邦是431d”the rulers and the ruled have the same opinion about who should rule” 就像一种“harmony”和谐协调 不像智慧,勇气一样各存在于城邦的一部分,而是“stretches throughout the whole” 所以”this unanimity(according to nature) is moderation” 四,justice 视而不见433a“justice is the minding of one’s own business and not being a busybody” Justice是一种power,让其他三者:1,come into being产生;2,preservation维持 将城邦中judging of lawsuits分配给统治者,追求:每个人不占有他人所有,同时自己所有也不为他人剥夺,即434a”the having and doing of one’s own and what belongs to one would be agreed to be justice” 所以不各司其职和meddling are the destruction of the city. 从城邦的正义转向灵魂的正义(大字到小字) 个人与城邦类似。 城邦是正义的,具有三个不同nature各司其职,且使之为正义的。 个人也可如此,存在同样的三类别和习性。 一,接下来确认是以下三种情况中的哪一种: 436b 1,”act in each of these ways as a result of the same part of ourselves”做每件事凭着同一个东西 2,”with a different one we act in each of the different ways”做不同的事情凭着不同的东西 3,”act with the soul as a whole in each of them”凭着整个灵魂整体 由此考察: 因为前提 436b”the same thing won’t be willing at the same time to do or suffer opposites with respect to the same part and in relation to the same thing” 不可能又静止又活动,若此则为物品的不同部分。 界定”same”:1,same time; 2,same part; 3,same thing否则就是不同 二,从desire欲望,willing,wanting开始 Not-wanting, not-willing, not-desiring与之相对 最明显的是thirsty和hungry,举例口渴与饮料冷热,多少的关系。 得出结论:Each particular desire itself is only for that particular thing itself of which it naturally is.每一种欲望本身由它自身渴求的特定东西相对应 把对good的desire相区分开来 关于知识knowledge 与某种particular kind of thing相连,对应的knowledge也变成了了particular thing. 得出结论thirst itself is naturally only for drink. 所以论证得出:the same thing would not perform opposed actions concerning the same thing with the same part of itself at the same time. 在这一前提下,举例有些人口渴却不愿喝水, 则其灵魂中存在由calculation理性思辨产生的阻止的力量和由affection和disease,统为desire欲望产生的吸引的力量。 这两种类别处于灵魂中。 spirit意气 Q:探讨意气与上述两者哪个更类似? 意气有时与欲望同盟,但更多时候它与理性一起: 1,看死尸的不耻和愤怒之心,被欲望控制时的自我责备 2,做错了意气不激昂 3,受到了不正义时的意气激昂,如同狗受牧人召唤领导 就像在城邦里的three classes:money-making, auxiliary, deliberative 而且意气往往一出生就充满,而理性有些人从未有,有些长大后才有 三,城邦与个人可以一一相对应 城邦成为正义的:441e“this city was just because each of the three classes in it minds its own business.” 则个人也是这样;”the one within whom each of the parts minds its own business will be just” 1,calculating part of rule: wise,对灵魂附有监督监护的责任 2,spirited part: be obedient to it and its ally 通过mixture of music and gymnastic 体教和乐教来使两者accordant 3,desiring: most of the soul,对财富的贪恋,前两者应该watch it,让它mind its own business,而不是尝试enslave和rule A single man courageous勇敢:442c”when his spirited part preserves, through pains and pleasures, what has been proclaimed by the speeches about that which is terrible and that which is not.” Wise 智慧:little part ruled in him and proclaimed these things 关于什么是对每一部分beneficial的knowledge. Moderate节制:friendship and accord of these parts,对于理性统治的共识 Just 正义:443a”each of the parts in him minds its own business” 最终*城邦的正义在于每个人自己的正义,管好自己的灵魂各部分 443d”set his own house in good order and rules himsellf”,就像乐曲中高低音一样和谐。 “become entirely one from many, moderate and harmonized” 444a”names a just and fine action one that preserves and helps to produce this condition” 四,考察injustice: 1,444b”a certain faction among those three” 2,”a meddling, interference, and rebellion of a part of the soul against the whole” 违反自己的nature,是vice entire 正如健康与疾病的比喻: 444c“doing just things also produce justice and unjust ones injustice” Just即是建立顺应它们本性的秩序 444d”Virtue,then, as it seems, would be a certain health, beauty and good condition of a soul, and vice a sickness, ugliness and weakness.” 接下来要考察:是不是做正义的事profitable? 但考察变得ridiculous,因为445a”life doesn’t see, livable with the body’s nature corrupted” Vice有多少forms,有无数其中值得注意的有四种 按政体形式的类型,就有多少种的灵魂。有五种政体,故有五种灵魂。 我们之前所述说的就是其中一种type of regime,可被命名为两种:一,kingship王权(由一人统治);二,aristocracy贵族(多于一人统治)。且只要恪守rearing&education,他们的统治不会动摇laws.

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