The Elements of Journalism 8.0分
读书笔记 Chapter 3&4

 Truth: The first and most confusing principle P36: … befuddled about what the truth means … “getting the facts right” P36 Journalism’s first obligation is to the truth. P37: Truth creates … the scenes of security that grows from awareness and is at the essence of news. Hierarchy of truth: Messages that tells us about fate of the universe Moral truth (tell us how to live) Allegorical truth (morals of stories) Literal truth (which the theorists said was usually empty of meaning and irrelevant) P39: … embellishments were all put there to create a sense of realism. … realism and reality – or accuracy and truth—were not so easily equated. 纪实与现实(精准与事实真理)很难完全等同。 纪实反映现实,却难以完全呈现出现实原貌。(记者的主观性) Walter Lippmann (Public Opinion): “News and truth are not the same thing, the function of news is to signalize an event… the function of truth is to bring to light the hidden facts, to set them into relation with each other and make a picture of reality upon which men can act.” 新闻并不揭示真理,仅仅引起公众注意,事实(新闻反映出的事实)背后的真理则需进一步洞见。记者应该做到哪一步?仅仅bring public attention?(以何种视角?)深入洞见(以何种身份?如何在最大程度上避免主观?是否更偏向纪实而远离现实?)  Should journalists mix their opinions into the news intentionally while reporting??? P40: … anyone can put facts into a meaningful context to report the truth about them. P40: Journalism by nature is reactive and practical rather than philosophical and introspective. P41: … “journalistic truth” is more than mere accuracy. It is a sorting out process that takes place between the initial story and the interaction among the public, newsmakers, and journalists. … journalism exists in social contexts… … dangers of publishing accounts that are “factually correct but substantially untrue.” 有意呈现疑似事实? … two tests of truth: correspondence / coherence (get the facts right / make sense of the facts) P43: … accuracy is the foundation upon which everything else is built: context, interpretation, debate, and all of public communication. Process of building “journalistic truth”: A) the physical externalities of the truth (facts that can be recorded and checked) B) conveyance of facts and accounts of their meaning (subject to further investigation) 并非一成不变。 P45: We embrace it [Journalism] the same way Albert Einstein did when he said of science that it was not about truth but about making what we know less false. 能够企及的无非无限接近目标,却永远难以达到,如同科学,如同历史… P45: … getting news that comes closer to a complete version of the truth has real consequences. P46: Fairness / Balance (too subjective) P48: Reality is that which, when you don’t believe it, doesn’t go away. P48: When information is a commodity in oversupply … knowledge becomes more difficult to acquire…process information (synthesis and verification)  Who journalists work for? P52: Journalism’s first loyalty is to citizens. P53: … “making the reader / listener / viewer your first obligation” as a “core principle of journalism” … P55: … a new public service role for journalism P56: Independence to isolation A) “less involved”: journalists were becoming transients – residents only of the community of journalism. B) … journalism became noticeably more subjective and judgmental… C) Isolation, in other words, became a business plan. P60 businesspeople VS newspeople Damaging consequences: A) … innovators were denounced B) … some business practices were put into the news room that ran counter to journalism’s and the citizen’s best interests. C) … journalist’s income to his organization’s financial performance in effect changes journalist’s allegiance. P63 Citizens are not Customers P64 The news audience is a consumer, but it is and overimplication and a confusion to call it a customer… the true business customer of journalism is the advertiser. P65: the wall between the news and the business side (fragile wall?) A) …it encouraged isolation B) … if two sides of a news-providing organization are really working at cross purposes, the journalism tends to be on the side that is corrupted. !!! 事实面前,商业与新闻之间所谓的“围墙”…? P70 Characteristics … to define the relationship between news and business: 1. The owner/ corporate must be committed to citizens first 2. Hire business managers who also put citizens first 3. Set and communicate clear standards 4. Journalists have final say over news 5. Communicate clear standards to the public (…serving citizens, not the bottom line or technology…)  Journalism of verification P79: The discipline of journalism is the discipline of verification Verification将新闻与其他传媒形式分隔开,如entertainment(娱乐)以及infotainment(所谓“娱讯”?) P80: Journalism alone is focused on getting what happened down right. Verification 需将significance 与accuracy 纳入考虑。 News pressure: publish immediately / the news is “out there” P83: … the journalist is not objective, but his method can be.  Impartial voice employed by … news organizations  Neutral voice … is a veneer atop something hollow … … neutrality is not a fundamental principle of journalism. P84: Unity of method rather than aim … And that method relates to the gathering of information, not the style of presentation. (否则陷入“accidental witness”?) P87: Phil Meyer: “Journalism and science come from the same intellectual roots…”  Objectivity of method: A) Balance … can lead to distortion… often there are two sides of a story. And sometimes balancing them equally is not a true reflection of reality. B) Fairness should mean that the journalist is being fair to the facts and citizen’s understanding of the facts. 看似褒义的中立,平衡,公正均不为新闻“客观方法”所容。 P89: … intellectual principles of a science of reporting: 1. Never add anything that was not there. 2. Never deceive the audience. 3. Be as transparent as possible about your method and motives. a) Being honest with the nature of their knowledge, why they trust it, what efforts they make to learn more. b) Sources c) Public interest motive  credibility Spirit of Transparency: Journalist asking for each event Answering the questions Acknowledge the questions their stories are not answering P96 … explain how you learned something and why you believe it so the audience can do the same … 4. Rely on your own original reporting. 5. Exercise humility. (also means that you should be open-minded) P103: Techniques of verification: 1. Edit with skepticism 2. Keep an accuracy checklist 3. Assume nothing 4. Tom French’s red pencil 5. Be careful with anonymous sources

《The Elements of Journalism》的全部笔记 10篇
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